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Sources cited in the back of Orphaned:

Here are the sources that I found most useful in researching Orphaned (they are also the sources for the facts in this author’s note. Those in bold are articles or documentaries especially suited to in-class use):


Gorilla Physiology and Behavior:


Among African Apes: Stories and Photos from the Field, edited by Martha M. Robbins and Christophe Boesch

The Education of Koko, by Francine Patterson and Eugene Linden

Gorilla, by Ian Redmond

Gorilla Behavior, by Terry L. Maple and Michael P. Hoff

Gorillas in the Mist, by Dian Fossey

Mountain Gorillas: Biology, Conservation, and Coexistence, by Gene Eckhart and Annette Lanjouw

Planet Ape, by Desmond Morris with Steve Parker

Virunga (documentary), directed by Orlando von Einsiedel

Walking With the Great Apes, by Sy Montgomery

The Year of the Gorilla, by George Schaller



Umwelt, or imagining gorilla consciousnesses:

“Are We in Anthropodenial?” by Frans de Waal, Discover Magazine, July 1997

“Can Fiction Show Us How Animals Think?” by Ivan Kreilkamp, The New Yorker, 4/21/2015

“Do Gorillas Even Belong in Zoos? Harambe’s Death Spurs Debate” by Natalie Angier, The New York Times, June 6, 2016

“How do Gorillas Grieve?” an interview with Barbara King, Pacific Standard, 6/9/2016

“The Metamorphosis: What is it like to be an Animal?” by Joshua Rothman, The New Yorker, 5/30/2016

“What Is It Like to Be a Bat?” by Thomas Nagel, The Philosophical Review, 10/1974


Visitor footage from zoos:

              Gorilla playing “peek-a-boo” with human toddler at the Columbus Zoo:

              “Watch the enchanting gorillas who were VERY curious about a caterpillar”

              Wild gorillas compose happy songs that they hum during meals:



Homo Ergaster and early humans:

Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors, by Nicholas Wade

Dragon Bone Hill: An Ice-Age Sage of Homo Erectus, by Noel T. Boaz and Russell L. Ciochon

Nova: Becoming Human, three-part documentary series. Episode 2 deals most closely with homo erectus and homo ergaster



Volcanic Eruptions:

Eruptions that Shook the World, by Clive Oppenheimer

The Great Rift: Africa's Greatest Story, BBC/Animal Planet Documentary Series. Episode 1 deals with how life adapted to the massive volcanic activity.

Super Volcano: The Ticking Time Bomb Beneath Yellowstone Park, by Greg Breining

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